Filed Under CSET Multiple Subject | 4 Comments
Teacher candidates studying for the CSET Social Science will also find this CSET practice test helpful. Teacher candidates often purchase ACE the CSET Multiple Subjects software to help them with the CSET Single Subject Social Science exam.
First you will study the information in the blue box, then answer the question below. An answer key is at the end of this article. It is recommended that you have a paper and pen and write the question number and then the letter of the answer you think is correct.
History of African Slavery Slavery in Africa began after the Bantu migrations spread agriculture throughout Africa. African slaves worked mostly as cultivators. Before the Europeans came to Africa, Muslim merchants had already been trading slaves because the system of capturing, selling, and distributing slaves was already functioning effectively. The slaves were transported from sub-Saharan Africa across the Sahara and distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. Also, slaves were shipped to ports in east Africa for distribution across the Indian Ocean. The first European slave traders were Portuguese explorers. They captured many slaves and developed a slave market. Later, instead of delivering slaves to Europe, slave traders were directly sending slaves to Portuguese colonies in the Atlantic, such as Madeiras, Cape Verde Islands, and Sao Tome. The island of Sao Tome had many sugar planters who had to call for large quantities of slaves to be shipped. As a result of the increasing number of slaves on sugar plantations, the production of sugar, along with its demand in Europe, had also increased. In the 1520's about two thousand slaves were sent to Sao Tome per year, and afterwards, the slave trade was extended by the Portugeuse to South America. In the 1530's, Portuguese slave traders were directly importing slaves from Angola and Kongo to Brazil. Consequently, Brazil became the wealthiest sugar-producing land in the western hemisphere. Thus, it is evident that a larger quantity of slave labor results in a larger quantity of sugar production. In addition to the Portuguese, Spanish explorers also imported African slaves to the Americas and the Caribbean. The natives who were conquered by the Spanish could not work on the land since their population had been destroyed by disease. Therefore, the Spanish had to seek for labor from Africa. Slaves were directly shipped from Africa to not only work on sugar plantations in the Caribbean but also to work as cultivators and miners in Mexico, Peru, and Central America. By the seventeenth century, English colonists had also introduced slavery to North America. The slave trade was mostly organized in triangles. Mainly, there were two intricate trade triangles that connected the western hemisphere to the eastern hemisphere. The first triangle involved Europe receiving raw materials from American colonies; Africa receiving manufactured products from Europe, such as firearms; and the colonies receiving slave from Africa. The second triangle is similar but does not include Europe. In the Caribbean, molasses was produced and shipped to New England, where it was then used to produce rum. The rum was subsequently sent to Africa, and from Africa, slaves were transported to the plantations in the Caribbean. Therefore, global economic connections can be seen through the sugar industry as plantations in America are tied to Europe, where their motherlands are, and also are connected to Africa, from where slaves are exported. Atlantic slave trade brought a large involuntary migration that influenced the development of different societies in the Atlantic Ocean basin. The main impact that these trade patterns had was a major demographic change. The African population was dangerously declining in parts of Africa, yet it was increasing rapidly in the Americas. In the sixteenth century, two thousand slaves were exported from Africa. In the seventeenth century, over twenty thousand slaves were exported, but in the eighteenth century, when slave trade was at its height, fifty-five thousand slaves were exported from Africa. From the beginning of the slave trade, over twelve million Africans were involuntarily transported to the western hemisphere. However, because American food crops improved diets, total African population actually rose during early modern periods. The slave trade had also created distorted sex ratios in Africa. Because most slaves taken were males, many parts of Africa were left with an uneven proportion of females to males. In the eighteenth century Angola, two-thirds of the population was female. As a result, this imbalance encouraged polygamy and forced women to work in fields and perform other masculine duties. As Africa was being depleted of its population, Europe was gradually gaining more and more economic power from its sugar plantations that were powered by slave labor. It is during the 1450 to 1750 period that Europe begins to thrive in global trade, and the success of the European economy was directly dependent on the African slave trade. During this period in history, a shift in global trade occurs. Before 1450 - 1750, trade was mostly concentrated in the Indian Ocean basin and Southeast Asia, but now, the focus of global trade shifted west to Europe and the Americas.
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